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Active 1951-1958. Signed into law on January 12, 1951 by President Harry S Truman. First Director was former Florida Governor, Millard Caldwell. President Truman created the FCDA by Executive Order. This move was communicated to the Congress with the transmittal of the Hopley Report, officially titled United States Civil Defense, wherein Truman noted concern with "the potential damage of devastating modern weapons."